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万圣节的英文 - 万圣节简介

2016-11-18 15:49:04 来源:讲历史 责编:讲历史

万圣节的英文名称是:AllHallow'sDay

万圣节前夕:Halloween

简介:

HalloweenisanobservancecelebratedonthenightofOctober31,mostnotablybychildrendressingincostumesandgoingdoor-to-doorcollectingcandy.ItiscelebratedinmuchoftheWesternworld,thoughmostcommonintheUnitedStates,PuertoRico,RepublicofIreland,theUnitedKingdom,Canada,andwithincreasingpopularityinAustraliaandNewZealand.HalloweenoriginatedinIrelandasthepaganCelticharvestfestival,Samhain.Irish,ScotsandotherimmigrantsbroughtolderversionsofthetraditiontoNorthAmericainthe19thcentury.MostotherWesterncountrieshaveembracedHalloweenasapartofAmericanpopcultureinthelate20thcentury.

ThetermHalloween,anditsolderspellingHallowe'en,isshortenedfromAll-hallow-even,asitistheeveningbefore"AllHallowsDay"(alsoknownas"AllSaints'Day").InIreland,thenamewasAllHallowsEveandthisnameisstillusedbysomeolderpeople.HalloweenwasalsosometimescalledAllSaints'Eve.TheholidaywasadayofreligiousfestivitiesinvariousnorthernEuropeanpagantraditions,untilitwasappropriatedbyChristianmissionariesandgivenaChristianinterpretation.InMexicoNovember1stand2ndarecelebratedasthe"DiadeLosMuertos"DayoftheDead.HalloweenisalsocalledPookyNightinsomepartsofIreland,presumablynamedafterthepúca,amischievousspirit.InAustraliaitissometimesreferredtoas"mischiefnight",bylocals.

Halloweenissometimesassociatedwiththeoccult.ManyEuropeanculturaltraditionsholdthatHalloweenisoneoftheliminaltimesoftheyearwhenthespiritualworldcanmakecontactwiththephysicalworldandwhenmagicismostpotent(e.g.Catalanmythologyaboutwitches).

Halloweenisanannualcelebration,butjustwhatisitactuallyacelebrationof?Andhowdidthispeculiarcustomoriginate?Isit,assomeclaim,akindofdemonworship?Orisitjustaharmlessvestigeofsomeancientpaganritual?

Theworditself,"Halloween,"actuallyhasitsoriginsintheCatholicChurch.ItcomesfromacontractedcorruptionofAllHallowsEve.November1,"AllHollowsDay"(or"AllSaintsDay"),isaCatholicdayofobservanceinhonorofsaints.But,inthe5thcenturyBC,inCelticIreland,summerofficiallyendedonOctober31.TheholidaywascalledSamhain(sow-en),theCelticNewyear.

Onestorysaysthat,onthatday,thedisembodiedspiritsofallthosewhohaddiedthroughouttheprecedingyearwouldcomebackinsearchoflivingbodiestopossessforthenextyear.Itwasbelievedtobetheironlyhopefortheafterlife.TheCeltsbelievedalllawsofspaceandtimeweresuspendedduringthistime,allowingthespiritworldtointerminglewiththeliving.

Naturally,thestill-livingdidnotwanttobepossessed.SoonthenightofOctober31,villagerswouldextinguishthefiresintheirhomes,tomakethemcoldandundesirable.Theywouldthendressupinallmannerofghoulishcostumesandnoisilyparadedaroundtheneighborhood,beingasdestructiveaspossibleinordertofrightenawayspiritslookingforbodiestopossess.

ProbablyabetterexplanationofwhytheCeltsextinguishedtheirfireswasnottodiscouragespiritpossession,butsothatalltheCeltictribescouldrelighttheirfiresfromacommonsource,theDruidicfirethatwaskeptburningintheMiddleofIreland,atUsinach.

SomeaccountstellofhowtheCeltswouldburnsomeoneatthestakewhowasthoughttohavealreadybeenpossessed,assortofalessontothespirits.OtheraccountsofCeltichistorydebunkthesestoriesasmyth.

TheRomansadoptedtheCelticpracticesastheirown。ButinthefirstcenturyAD,SamhainwasassimilatedintocelebrationsofsomeoftheotherRomantraditionsthattookplaceinOctober,suchastheirdaytohonorPomona,theRomangoddessoffruitandtrees。ThesymbolofPomonaistheapple,whichmightexplaintheoriginofourmoderntraditionofbobbingforapplesonHalloween。

Thethrustofthepracticesalsochangedovertimetobecomemoreritualized.Asbeliefinspiritpossessionwaned,thepracticeofdressinguplikehobgoblins,ghosts,andwitchestookonamoreceremonialrole.

ThecustomofHalloweenwasbroughttoAmericainthe1840'sbyIrishimmigrantsfleeingtheircountry'spotatofamine。Atthattime,thefavoritepranksinNewEnglandincludedtippingoverouthousesandunhingingfencegates。

Thecustomoftrick-or-treatingisthoughttohaveoriginatednotwiththeIrishCelts,butwithaninth-centuryEuropeancustomcalledsouling.OnNovember2,AllSoulsDay,earlyChristianswouldwalkfromvillagetovillagebeggingfor"soulcakes,"madeoutofsquarepiecesofbreadwithcurrants.Themoresoulcakesthebeggarswouldreceive,themoreprayerstheywouldpromisetosayonbehalfofthedeadrelativesofthedonors.Atthetime,itwasbelievedthatthedeadremainedinlimboforatimeafterdeath,andthatprayer,evenbystrangers,couldexpediteasoul'spassagetoheaven.

TheJack-o-lanterncustomprobablycomesfromIrishfolklore。Asthetaleistold,amannamedJack,whowasnotoriousasadrunkardandtrickster,trickedSatanintoclimbingatree。Jackthencarvedanimageofacrossinthetree'strunk,trappingthedevilupthetree。Jackmadeadealwiththedevilthat,ifhewouldnevertempthimagain,hewouldpromisetolethimdownthetree。

Accordingtothefolktale,afterJackdied,hewasdeniedentrancetoHeavenbecauseofhisevilways,buthewasalsodeniedaccesstoHellbecausehehadtrickedthedevil。Instead,thedevilgavehimasingleembertolighthiswaythroughthefrigiddarkness。Theemberwasplacedinsideahollowed-outturniptokeepitglowinglonger。

TheIrishusedturnipsastheir"Jack'slanterns"originally.ButwhentheimmigrantscametoAmerica,theyfoundthatpumpkinswerefarmoreplentifulthanturnips.SotheJack-O-LanterninAmericawasahollowed-outpumpkin,litwithanember.

So,althoughsomecultsmayhaveadoptedHalloweenastheirfavorite"holiday,"thedayitselfdidnotgrowoutofevilpractices.ItgrewoutoftheritualsofCeltscelebratinganewyear,andoutofMedievalprayerritualsofEuropeans.Andtoday,evenmanychurcheshaveHalloweenpartiesorpumpkincarvingeventsforthekids.Afterall,thedayitselfisonlyasevilasonecarestomakeit.

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